A statistical technique used by financial institutions to determine how much money to lend to a (potential) customer. This allocates scores based upon past performance, profitability, assets in the business etc.
Yes, this does occur for both businesses and people. If you were asked to invest in a business or lend money to a friend, you would assess the chances of getting your money back. You would consider other loans they had, their ability to pay interest, and form a picture of their 'financial suitability'. You would effectively 'score' their whole ability to repay.